When just floating peacefully in the water with their brood mates, the Culex mosquito larvae in the image above does not look very frightening. But in their adult form, they are the prime vector for spreading West Nile virus — a sometimes mild, sometimes fatal disease.

Part of the Flavivirus family, which includes Dengue, Zika, and yellow fever, West Nile virus migrated with birds from Uganda in the 1930s to Europe, and then into the Americas in 1999. An invasive microbe, West Nile virus has now spread from shore to shore, with 2,038 cases reported across 47 states in the US in 2016… more

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